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A measurement result is considered accurate if it is judged to be close to the true
Rain that has become acidic (with a pH of less than 5.6) from the reaction between oxygen in the atmosphere reacting with NOx and SO2, released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned, resulting in mild sulphuric, nitric and other acids being formed. When it falls, as a mild acidic solution, it can slowly corrode buildings and be harmful to the environment.
Energy produced from the use of biofuels.
Fuels made from any recent living organic materials or their by-products such as wood and straw,or sugar cane. Biofuels can be liquid such as bio-diesel or gasahol, gas such as biogas generated by the breakdown of biomass by bacteria or solid such as wood chippings.
Any recently living or organic material for example trees, crops and vegetable peelings.
When rocks are broken down by living things (e.g. plant roots, rabbits)
A colourless, odourless gas. It is denser than air. Each carbon dioxide molecule is made of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. The symbol for carbon dioxide is CO2.
A catalytic cracker, or "cat cracker," is the basic gasoline-making process in a refinery. The cat cracker uses high temperatures, low pressure, and a catalyst to create a chemical reaction that breaks heavy gas oil into smaller gasoline molecules. With a cat cracker, more of each barrel of oil can be turned into gasoline
Chemistry is the study of the constitution of matter and its interactions; it has numerous applications, including biochemistry, electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry.
ChromatographyA method of separating a mixture of dissolved solids from each other. A chromatogram is the dried piece of paper produced by chromatography. The technique is often used to analyse dyes or colours e.g. in food additives.
all weather conditions for a given location over a period of time
Change of a substance from a gaseous state to a liquid state; it results from cooling
When a material deteriorates due to a chemical reaction with its environment it has been corroded. An example being the oxidation of iron to form iron oxide (rust).
Information, either qualitative or quantitative, that has been collected.
A biogas "digester" can convert animal waste into usable energy. On some dairy farms, the muck from inside the barn is collected and put into a large digester, or tank. Inside the digester, methane gas is separated from the liquid and solid waste. The methane gas can then be used to generate electricity to light the barn, or to sell to the electric power grid
A method of separating a mixture of liquids from a solution using evaporation because different liquids will have different boiling points. Fractional distillation is used to separate different fractions e.g when refining crude oil
The process of producing chemical changes in a substance by passing an electric current through it.
A source of power that makes people move or objects work.
A form of alcohol. It is found in alcoholic beverages but can also be used as a fuel.
To breathe out.
A method to separate an undissolved (insoluble) solid from a liquid by passing through a filter
Any fuel made from ancient animal or plant remains, such as coal, oil, gas and peat.
Change of a substance from a liquid state to a solid state; it results from cooling.
Fungi are one of the taxonomic kingdoms, separate from plants and animals. They obtain nutrients by absorbing organic compounds from the surrounding environment.
A device that either uses a rotating magnet and fixed coils of wire, or a fixed magnet and rotating coils of wire to produce electricity.
Heat energy from the Earth.
GraniteAn igneous rock with large crystals
Gravitational potential energy
This is the energy that an object has if it is above the ground and could possibly fall under the effect of gravity.
The process by which heat energy from the Sun is trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere. Certain gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, cause the greenhouse effect.
Gases that absorb the heat of the Sun in the Earth's atmosphere, producing the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas. Other greenhouse gases include methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide.
A device that transfers heat from one liquid or gas to another. It can do this through a solid wall or even if the liquids or gases are in contact with each other. They are used in fridges and in air conditioning
Igneous a rock formed when larva or magma cools
A substance which is a poor conductor of either electricity or thermal energy
An animal which has no backbone like a worm or an octapus
A Joule (J) is a unit of energy.
A kilowatt (kW) is one thousand watts.
A kilowatt hour (kWh) is a unit of energy. One kilowatt hour is the amount of energy that would be used by a device with a power of 1 kilowatt which was left to operate for 1 hour. It is equivalent to 3,600,000 Joules.
Electricity companies measure the amount of electricity we use in our homes in kilowatt hours and they often call each one a ‘unit’.
This is the energy that a body has because of its motion.
Molten rock that flows from volcanoes
the distance light travels in 1 year
Matter having a definite mass and volume but no shape; its atoms are relatively mobile in relation to each other.
Hot liquid rock, found under the Earth's crust
Any substance that has mass, is composed of atoms and occupies space.
A megajoule (MJ) is one million Joules.
A megawatt (MW) is one million Watts.
Change of a substance from a solid state to a liquid state; it results from heating
Rocks formed by changing igneous or sedimentary rocks
A type of plant which has a stalk and leaves but no proper roots. They reproduce by spores and can often be found on rocks and trees.
A device for producing kinetic energy from another kind of energy. For example an electrical motor in a food mixer produces kinetic energy from electrical energy. A clockwork motor in a watch produces kinetic energy from strain energy in the spring.
A giant network of overhead lines and underground cables used to transport all of the electricity supplies around the country.
A particle with no electrical charge which, together with the proton, makes up the nucleus of an atom.
Energy resources which, once used, cannot be replaced. Examples are coal, oil and gas.
The process of releasing energy from the nucleus of a large atom by splitting it into two or more pieces.
The process of releasing energy from the nucleus of a small atom by fusing it together with the nucleus of another small atom.
Any living thing
An animal that eats plants and animals; humans are omnivores and have teeth and a digestive system adapted to eating plants and animals.
The path a planet takes around a star or satellite/moon takes around a planet
A type of rock which contains enough metal compounds to make it economic to extract this, many are oxides, or chlorides.
A compound that contains oxygen, for example copper oxide
Phases of the moon
different shapes the moon seems to have at different times
The use of semi-conductors, such as silicon, to produce electricity directly from sunlight. Often shortened to ‘PV’.
A particle with a positive charge which, together with the neutron, makes up the nucleus of an atom.
A measuring square used to estimate the number of organisms in a sample area of habitat.
Any energy resource that cannot be ‘used up’. Examples are solar power, wind power and wave power.
Anything that orbits a planet - this can be natural like a moon or man-made like a space station or weather satellite
A scrubber is a technology that traps pollutants and keeps them from escaping into the air. Scrubbers in an electric power plant trap sulfur that is produced from burning coal or natural gas.
Solar systemA star with planets and objects moving around it. Our solar system has eight planets around our star: the Sun.
Rigid body possessing mass, volume and a definite form; its atoms are linked to each other and are almost completely at rest.
The production or depositing of large quantities of eggs in water
States of matter
Matter exists in three fundamental states (solid, liquid and gaseous), which depend on the temperature and pressure to which the matter is subjected.
SubliminationChange of a substance from a solid state directly to a gaseous state without passing through the liquid state; it results from heating.
A colourless, rather smelly gas. It reacts with water and oxygen in the air to produce sulphuric and sulphurous acids, which can fall as acid rain.
Something that will be able to be maintained in the future.
Instrument for measuring temperature by means of a substance (usually a liquid or a gas) contained in a graduated tube.
A device where blades are rotated by the force of a stream of liquid or gas.
Something that will not be able to be maintained in the future.
A type of uranium where the nucleus is made up from 92 protons and 143 neutrons.
A type of uranium where the nucleus is made up from 92 protons and 144 neutrons.
An injection of a weak or dead micro-organism to create immunity
A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste
A space which contains nothing at all
One of the large blood vessels carrying blood to the heart.
cells with finger like projections that absorb digested food
A material which repels water
A Watt (W) is unit of power. 1 Watt is equivalent to 1 Joule per second.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines used to generate electricity
Another name for uterus
YeastA type of fungus with only one cell (a microbe bigger than bacteria). Yeast can be used to make bread or in brewing beer and fermenting wine but yeast infections like candida can be unpleasant.
"Yellowcake" is another name for uranium oxide, named for its color and texture. After uranium is mined and separated from ore, it is made into "yellowcake" and shipped to a conversion plant for more processing.
An element with the symbol Zn. It is a white brittle metal and is commonly used as an alloy with copper to make brass. Another common use is for galvanising (coating) iron to prevent corrosion
The cell formed by the joining together of a male gamete and a female gamete during fertilisation. The zygote develops into an embryo